INTRODUCTION AND GREETING
Starting A Conversation
- It’s often difficult to make contact with strangers who speak, another languages unless you know a few opening gambits, of course.
- Here are some useful ways of starting a conversation with a strangers :
– Nice day, isn’it
– Horrible weather we’re having
– Excuse me, have you got a light ?
– Say, don’t I knor you from somewhere ?
– Uh, could you help me, I am looking for………….
A Great Number of Question
- What do you think of………?
– What do you think of Bali ?
– I think it’s very attractive island
- What do you think of the news today ?
– Not too good, I’m afraid
- How do you like Taman Mini ?
– I like it very much.
- How do you like your new job ?
– I find it very interesting.
General English 2
- What’s it like ?
– What’s Yogyakarta like ? – It’s pretty little university city.
– What’s Ancol like ? – very nice.
- Some other common patterns
– How did you come ? – By car, by air, by sea,…………
– How did you spend your holiday ? – We word to the seaside.
– What subjects do you study ? – My main subject is English.
– It’s football popular over there ? – No, not very.
- A : Nice day, isn’t it ?
- B : Yes, it’s very nice.
- A : It’s a fantastic and beautiful tourist object. I love it very much.
- A : May I introduce mayself ? My name is Abdullah Al-Hassan.
- B : How do you do ? My Name Is Barry Dickens (with shaking hands).
- A : How do you do ? Pleased to meet you ? (with shaking hand). Are you from U.S ?
- B : No, I’m from England.
- Introduction yourself.
– How do you do ? My name is Abdullah Al-Hassan.
– Excuse me, my name is Abdullah Al-Hassan.
– May I introduce myself. My name is………
– I would like to introduce myself.
- Ayu : Hello Tina, how are you ?
- Tina : Fine, thanks, and how are you ?
- Ayu : I’m very well. I don’t think you’ve met my brother. This is Bayu.
- Tina : How do you do (with shaking hand) ?
- Ayu : How do you do (with shaking hand) ?
- Are you a students Miss Tina ?
- Tina : Yes, I am a student of Tunas Com-Academy.
- Ayu : I’m glad to walk with you, Miss Tina.
- Tina : I’m glad too.
Intoducing a speaker
- If you are introducing a speaker you should indicate him or her with your hand and say :
– Ladies and gentlemen, Dr. Yahya.
– Ladies and gentlemen, I have great pleasure in outsourcing our guest speaker, Dr. yahya.
- Greetings and taking a leave
– Hello, hi and good morning/evening/afternoon.
– Hello, hi (informal).
– Good morning/afternoon/evening and etc.
Continuing from before
- How are you, fine thank you
– How are you ?(to ask one’s condition or feeling)
– Fine thank you (It’s used to answer, how are you)
- How do you do ? (to ask about one’s condition or feeling)
- Good Bye, bye for now. See you, so long, etc ?
– Digunakan jika kita bertemu dengan seseorang atau beberapa orang.
STRUCTURE 1 :
INTRODUCTION TO SENTENCES
Classification of Sentences By Number of Predication
- Simple Sentences
– Ducks run slowly
– He singsbeautifully
– My brother is good at math
- Compound Sentences
– He bought a pen, and he gave me it
– My nephew is happy, but my nice is sad
– I can’t stay longer, or I miss my buss
- Complex Sentences
– The man who speaks English very well is my brother
– The man whom I call is my uncle
– He had lunch very much because he is very hungry
Basic Sentence Patterns (1)
- S + V
– He runs.
– My brother is sleeping
- S + V + C
– He becomes lazy
– His father is a patriot
– Your skin feels soft and smooth
- S + V + Aux.
– Our campus opens at 8 AM
– We study hard
– They live close to campus
- S + V + Preposition + D.O
- The teacher announced the test to the students.
– I send an e-mail to my brother.
– The man opens the door for them.
– He borrowed some money from me.
- S + V + O + C
– The Judge proved him innocent.
– We elected him our leader.
– I named my son Bayu.
- S + V + D.O + I.O
– She makes me hot tea.
– The object is placed before the direct object.
– He borrowed money from me.
- It + be + C + A.
– It’s a better to be early.
– It was easy.
– It must have been love.
- There + be + C + A
– There is a book.
– There are a lot of people.
– There has been a book on my table.
LESSON 3 :
CONVERSATION 2 :
- May I speak to Miss Silvana ? (Boleh saya bicara dengan Miss Silvana ?)
- Could I speak to Miss Silvana ? (Boleh saya dengan Nona Silvana ?)
- Can you take me a message, please ? (Dapatkah anda mengambil pesan ?)
- Could you please take a call, please ? (Maukah anda menerima telepon ?)
- I have a call for you from Miss Anna. (Ada telepon untuk anda dari Nona Anna).
- Ask her to return a call to me. (Suruh dia menelepon balik ke sana ).
- Is Mr. Jono there ? (Ada Tuan Jono ?)
- Is this ? (Siapa ini ?)
- Who is speaking ? (Siapa yang bicara ?)
- I would like him to call me when he comes in ? (Saya menginginkannya untuk menelepon apabila ia masuk ?)
- I call again later. (Saya akan menelepon dia lagi nanti.)
- The line is busy. ( Telepon sibuk/sedang dipakai).
Expression of Answering Telephone :
- Hello / Halo
- Is Mr Anto speaking / apakah Tn. Anto sedang berbicara ?
- I’m sorry he is not in / maaf, beliau sedang tidak ada.
- May I ask your number, please ? (Bolehkah saya tahu nomor telepon anda ?)
- To whom did you wish to speak ? (Kepada siapakah anda inging bicara ?)
- I’m afraid you have the wrong number ? (Saya khawatir anda salah sambung ?)
- Would you call again later ? ( Apakah anda mau menelepon kembali ?)
- Would you like to leave a message ? ( Apakah anda ingin meninggalkan pesan ?)
- I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. (Maaf, anda telah menunggu lama.)
- Would you hold the line, please ? ( Tunggu sebentar.)
STRUCTURE 2 :
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
- Rumus :
– S + V1 + O + s/es.
– S + do/does + not + V1.
– Do/does + Subject + Verb 1 + s/es ?
– Do/Does + Subject + not + V1 + s/es ?
|I work||I do not work||Do I work ?
Don’t you work?
|You work||You don’t work||Do you work ?
Don’t you work ?
|We work||We don’t work||Do we/you work ?
Don’t you work ?
|They work||They don’t work||Do they work ?
Don’t they work ?
|He works||He does work
He doesn’t work
|Does he work ?
Doesn’t he work ?
|She works||She doesn’t work||Doesn’t she work?|
Expressing habitual actions :
- Dogs bark.
- Cows eat the grass.
- The Indonesian people eat rice.
- He always has breakfast at 6 a.m.
- I seldom which the movie.
- They visit their uncle every month.
Ungkapan kebenaran/gejala alam dan rencana/kejadian.
- The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west.
- A year has twelve months.
- The earth revolves around the sun.
- We leave Jakarta at 8 AM tomorrow and arrive in Yogyakarta at 6 PM.
- The plane leaves tomorrow morning.
- She sings beautifully.
- He screams loudly.
- I work hard at home.
Present Continues Tenses
- (+) Subject + To Be + V + ing.
- (-) Subject + To Be + Not + V + ing.
- (?) To Be + Subject + Verb + Ing ?
- (-?) To Be + Not + Subject + Verb + Ing ?
Some Examples :
|I am working||I am not working||Am I working ?
Are you working ?
|We are working||We aren’t working||Are we working ?
Are you working ?
|He is working||He isn’t working||Is he working ?
Isn’t he working ?
Present Perfect Tenses
- Rumus :
– S + Have (s) + V3
– S + have (s) + not + V3
– Have (s) + subject + V3
- Digunakan dengan kata kerja “Just” :
– He has just gone out.
– He hasn’t just gone out.
– Has/n’t he just gone out.
Digunakan untuk kejadian di masa lalu yang tidak bisa ditentukan
- I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.
- Have you had breakfast ?
- No. I haven’t had it yet.
- Digunakan pada kata “since” dan “for” :
- He has been in Jakarta since 1990.
- I have been here for 2 hours.
- Used with adverb “yet”
- He hasn’t come yet. So we are still waiting for him.
- Haven’t they had lunch yet ? Yes, they have.
Present Perfect Continuous Tenses
|Subject + have/has + been + verb + ing.
Subject + have/hasn’t + been + verb + ing.
Have/has + subject + been + verb + ing.
|The examples :
|Simple Past Tenses :
(+) S + Verb + ed, (-) S + did + not + V1
(?) Did + Subject + V1 ?
For Example :
- He bought a pen.
- Did hw buy a pen.
- He did not buy a pen.
- They discussed English yesterday.
- He bought his car last year.
- We went to Jakarta 2 days ago.
- Mengungkapkan tindakan yang dilakukan di waktu mendatang yang akan segera dilaksanakan.
- Pola kalimat :
– Subject + will + verb-1 (+)
– Subject + will + not + verb-1 (-)
– Will + subject + verb-1 (?)
Past Continuous Tenses
- Rumus : To Be + V3 (The Past Participle)
- Contoh :
– It was getting darker. (hari semakin gelap)
– The sun was rising. (matahari terbenam pelan-pelan)
– The water was flowing to the low surface. (Air perlahan-lahan mengalir ke dataran rendah).
– We are studying English while a bell ring.
– When the teacher came, the students were playing chess.
– Anto was sleeping when I visited him.
Past Perfect Tenses
- Dapat digunakan dalam kegiatan yang sudah pernah terjadi di waktu lampau. Pola kalimatnya :
- (+) Subject + Had + Verb. 3
- (-) Subject + Had + not + Verb. 3
- (?) Had + Subject + Verb. 3
- When I reached the situation, the rain had left.
- We went on holiday after we had taken the exam.
- I had explained that I had forgotten my keys.
Past Perfect Continues Tenses
|The patterns are :
(+) S + Had + been + V. ing, (-) S + had + not + V. ing.
(?) Had + S + been + v. ing ?
When the action began before time of speaking in the past and continued up to that time, or stopped just before it.
While I had been studying English for an hour, he came to see me yesterday.
|When she arrived, I had been waiting for an hour.
They had been playing badminton since 6 o’clock when she came there this morning.
He had tried five times to get her on the telephone.
|He had been trying to get on the telephone.
She had seen that movie six times.
She had been seeing that movie.
For examples :
- He will go to the zoo.
- She will be glad to do that for you.
- Will you help me ?
- They will meet me tomorrow.
- She will not take an exam next week.
- Will you marry me soon.
Future Continues Tenses
- The patterns are belowed here :
– (+) Subject + will + be + verb. Ing
– (-) Subject + will not + be + verb. Ing
– (?) Will + subject + be + verb. Ing
- At this time next week, he will be driving through Java.
- At 7 o’ clock tonight, they will be watching TV.
- What will you be doing tomorrow at 10 AM.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSES
- The patterns are :
– (+) Subject + will + have + Verb. 3
– (-) Subject + will + not + have + Verb. 3
– (?) Will + subject + not + have + Verb. 3
For example :
- By this time next week, he will have taken his university degree.
- She will read this book by the end of this week
- Before his vacation is over, he will have made many new friends.
Future Perfect Continues Tenses
- The patterns are : (WON’T=WILL NOT)
– (+) Subject + will + have + been + verb-ing.
– (-) Subject + won’t + have + been + verb-ing.
– (?) Will/not + have + been + verb-ing.
- For example :
– By this time next week, he will have been taking my exam.
– Ali will have been being in college by the end of this year.
– He will have been taking a course of taxation by the end of this week.
CONVERSATION 3 :
AT THE RECEPTION/FRONT OFFICE OF THE HOTEL
Glossary Of Hotel
- Room boy = pelayan
- Girl-servant = pelayan wanita
- A single-bed room = kamar dengan sebuah tempat tidur
- A double-bed room = kamar dengan dua buah tempat tidur bersebelahan
- A room with attracted bathroom = kamar dengan kamar mandi didalamnya
- An air-conditioned room (kamar ber-AC)
- A joining rooms (dua kamar yang bersebelahan)
- Linda : Good Morning, Sir. What can I do for you ?
- Mr. Grey : I’d like a double bed room, please.
- Linda : Certainly, Sir. How long do you want to stay ?
- Mr. Grey : Three days.
- Linda : What’s your name, Sir ?
- Mr. Grey : I’m Grey.
- Linda : Thank you. Could you please sign in the book ?
- Mr. Grey : Yes, I could.
- Linda : Here is your key, Sir. Room 243. It’s on the second floor.
- Mr. Grey : Thanks a lot.
- Linda : You’re welcome, Sir.
LESSON 6 :
STRUCTURE 3 :
ADJECTIVE AND NOUN CLAUSE
- Who is used for persons as a subject.
– The man who robbed you has been arrested.
– The girl who speaks English fluently is my daughter.
– I talk about the language with the linguist who is familiar with linguistique.
Whom and whose
- Is used for persons as an object.
– The girl whom the employee is very pretty.
– The man to whom I spoke is my uncle.
– They give some money to beggar whom I help.
- Is used for persons or nouns as a possessive.
– The man whose car was lost is my friend.
– The film is about spy whose wife betrays him.
– The computer whose monitor is broken is mine
– The book of which/whose cover is nice is my sister’s.
Which and when
- The picture which caused such a sensation.
- The radio which I bought is expensive.
- The ladder on which I was standing began to slip.
- The ladder which I was standing on began to slip.
- The day when the students have the exam arrived.
- The day on which the students have the exam arrived.
- The month when we graduate has arrived.
- The month in which we graduate has arrived.
- He came here when the bell ring.
Where/in which,that and why
- The small town where I was born has grown to a province.
- The building where we work has 7 floor.
- We stood where we could watch the mountain.
- The reason why I came should be obvious to you.
- We had the reason why we elected him a president
- That man that robbed you has been arrested.
- The reason that I came shoud be obvious to me.
- He came here that the bell ring
- As a Subject
– That she is very rich means nothing to me.
– That his computer process the data quickly is expensive.
– Whoever enters this room must be forbidden.
- As an Object
– Jono said that he got cold.
– I know if I can do.
– They know how they earn a living.
- As a Complement
– My opinion is that learning english is easy.
– The question is how he can finish his work better.
Adverbial Clause on Time
- Such clause is used as an adverb of time. Some of subordinate conjuctions are when, while, before, after, since, till, no sooner, than, by the time, and many more.
– I used to ride a bike, when I was at High School
(Saya sering bersepeda, ketika masih SMA)
– Shut the door, before you go out.
(Tutup pintu, sebelum pergi keluar)
– By the time he arrives, I will have slept.
(Menjelang dia tiba, saya sudah tertidur)
– No sooner had she entered than he gave an order.
(Begitu masuk, dia langsung memberi perintah)
Adverbial Clause of Place
- Such clause is used as an adverb of place. Some of subordinate conjunctive are where, where ever, anywhere, nowhere, etc.
- For example :
– Where is a will, there is a way.
(Dimana ada kemauan, disana ada jalan)
– Go where you like.
(Pergilah kemana kamu suka)
– Do you know where the post office.
(Tahukah anda dimana kantor pos)
Adverbial Clause of Contrast
- Some of subordinate conjunctions are although, through, eventhough, as the time, whereas, even if, etc.
- For example :
– As the time I was studying, they came.
(Pada saat saya sedang belajar, mereka datang)
– Although it’s too late, I’ll go on studying English.
(Walaupun terlambat, saya akan terus belajar bahasa Inggris)
– He is very patient, although he is poor.
(Dia sangat sabar walaupun miskin)
Adverbial Clause of Manner
- Such as : like, as, how, in that, etc.
- For example :
– The man behaves as he is still a child.
(Pria itu berperilaku layaknya anak-anak)
– You can study at university how you want.
(Anda dapat belajar di universitas yang anda mau)
– He did as I told.
(Dia melakukan seperti apa yang saya katakan)
Adverbial Clause of Clause
- Such as : since, because, as, etc.
- For example :
– Since you are thirsty, drink first.
(Karena kamu haus, minumlah dulu)
– As it is raining, I will not go out.
(Karena hujan, saya tidak akan kemana-mana)
– He eat very much because he is very hungry.
(Dia makan sangat banyak, karena dia sangat lapar)
Adverbial Clause of Result
- Such as subordinate conjuctions are : so, that, such, that.
- For example :
– So + adj + that
- She is so pretty that every man falls in love with her.
(Dia sangat cantik, sehingga setiap pria jatuh cinta)
- I am so sad that I am ill.
(Saya sangat sedih karena saya sedang sakit)
- Such a + singular /plural count. noun + that
- For example :
- She is such a pretty girl that every man falls in love with her.
(Dia begitu cantik, sehingga setiap lelaki jatuh cinta)
- It was so a nice day that we went to the beach.
(Hari begitu cerah, sehingga kami pergi ke pantai)
- They are such polite people that we are glad to meet them.
(Mereka sangat sopan, sehingga kami senang berkenalan)
- This is such cheap sugar that everyone can buy it.
(Ini adalah gula murah, sehingga setiap orang dapat membelinya)
Adverbial Clause of Purpose
- Some of subordinate conjuctions are in order that, so, so that, in the hope that, in case, etc.
- For example :
– He bought a dictionary so he could learn English.
(Dia membeli sebuah kamus agar dia dapat belajar bahasa Inggris)
– I study hard in order that I pass the exam.
(Saya belajar keras agar dapat lulus)
READING AND WRITING 1
Buying A Computer
If you are thinking of buying your own computer, there are several questions you need to ask before you decide on a particular model. For example, how big is its memory ? Does the cost include accessories such as a printer and a mouse ? And is there a plenty of software available ? The price you pay is likely to be determined by all these factors. It is now quite common for manufacturers to give away software programs with their machines.
This is because the personal computer market has become highly competitive (witness the fact that dozens of computer firms go bankrupt every year), so free software has became an important weapon in the battle for sales.
Task 1. Answer the following questions.
- Is it necessary to have some decisions ?
- What factors is necessary to decide in buying a computer ?
- In the competition of business, what is done by the firms ?
- What does the word “memory” mean in line 4 ?
- What does the word “this” refer to in line 4 ?
Writing A Paragraph
- Notice : A paragraph is a group of related statements that a writer develops about a subject. Each paragraph is a separate unit marked by indenting the first word from the left-hand margin, or by leaving extra space above and below paragraph
- For example :
A Private Conversation
Last week I went the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. I didn’t enjoy. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly. I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turn around. I looked at the man and the woman angrily. They didn’t pay any attention. In the end, I could not bear it. I turned round again. ‘I can’t hear a word ! I said angrily. It’s none of your business. The young man said rudely. This is a private conversation.
The statement, ‘Last Week’ I went to the theater’ is the main through of paragraph and the others are explaining thought.
Making a cup of coffee
Coffee is a kind of drink which is a lot of people like very much. There are several ways of making a cup of coffee. First, put some coffee powder in the cup. Second, put some sugar in the glass. Third, pour some hot water into the cup. Fourth, stir your coffee with a spoon. Now, a cup of coffee is ready to drink.
Structure and Preposition
- Kinds a preposition
– At (place, time, direction, price)
– In (Place, State, City)
Contoh kalimat :
- My brother told me about his test (tentang)
- I’ll come about ten o’clock (kira2)
- He looked about him. (disekitarnya)
- They were tired of waiting about town. (keliling)
- The boy played the ball after school (sesudah)
- You come after me. (sesudah)
- The dog ran after the cat. (mengejar)
- It has rained day after day. (berhari-hari)
- Don’t do it against the law. (bertentangan)
- I leant against the tree. (bersandar pada)
- The rain was beating against the window. (pada)
- I am at home. (ada di)
- You were at Sukabumi.
- Put a stamp at the top right corner of the envelope.
- There is a shop at the corner of the street.
- The picture looks better at a distance.
- He lives at 17 Baru Street.
- He always gets up at 4 o’clock
- We always visit our grand mother at Idul Fitri day.
- The student always at the end of test.
- He takes a nap at noon.
- My brother threw the stone at a dog.
- Look at me
- My uncle bought a new car at Rp 80.000.000,00
- Such position is used for speaking of two persons or things.
- I walked between my son and my daughter.
- Our house is between the post office and the police station.
- The old man sat among his grand-children.
- Among the students, I saw my son.
- I must finish my thesis by June (sebelum).
- He likes sitting in the garden by moonlight. (selama/dibawah)
- I go to school by bus. (dengan)
- He went to Bandung by train. (dengan)
- Come and sit by the fire. (di dekat)
- The robbers are catched by the police. (oleh)
- This novel is written by Shakespeare. (oleh)